That a Byzantine prince, born in the purple, would be sent to live among, and rule over, Latin barbarians,[64] was bad enough but there were also fears that he and his descendants might become 'Latinized'[65] and that the Italians, as a result of the Montferrat inheritance, could launch an invasion in the future in hopes of placing a Catholic Palaiologos on the Byzantine throne. Although Andronikos III was ultimately victorious and Andronikos II was deposed, the empire was damaged economically and for the first time, foreign states such as Bulgaria and Serbia had appeared as significant regulating factors in imperial dynastic disputes (joining opposite sides of the civil war). Dotted lines indicate illegitimate offsprings. The repeated attempts by the emperors to reunite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church, and thus place the Byzantine church in submission under the Papacy, was viewed as heresy and treason. According to the genealogies, Rogerio would have been born about 1430 and was supposedly sent to Alfonso the Magnanimous of Aragon and Naples as a hostage to guarantee some treaty with the Byzantines. As youngest son, Thomas was never expected to reign, but his children became the onl… In the 18th century, several Phanariots (members of prominent Greek families in the Fener quarter of Constantinople) were granted governing positions in the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (predecessors of Romania) by the Ottomans. [52] The change in title might be attributable to the family being the senior heirs of Thomas Palaiologos, whose wife had been the heiress of the last Prince of Achaea. When Constantinople fell to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the Palaiologoi fled to the Empire of Nicaea, a Byzantine successor state ruled by the Laskaris family, where they continued to play an active role and occupied many offices of high rank. Chronicle of the Fall of Constatinople : Brief History of Events in Constantinople during the Period 1440-1453, Georgiou Frantzi, Ioannis A. Melisseidis - translator : Ioannis A. Melisseidis, Rita Zavolea Melisseidou ) 1998/2004, Ekd.Vergina, Athens. The delegation visited places in Italy where Palaiologoi were known to have resided and even came to Cornwall, where Theodore Paleologus had lived in the 17th century. [35] Andreas and Manuel soon faced financial problems, with the pension once provided to their father having been split between the two of them and constantly cut back by the Papacy. Constantine was the son of Emperor Manuel II. [80], Many Byzantine refugees, though unrelated to the emperors, legitimately bore the name Palaiologos due to the extensive nature of the family. They are recorded numerous times as donors to monasteries, and intermarried several times with the Komnenos dynasty during its rule over the Byzantine Empire (1081–1185). In an effort to rid himself of the threat that an Aleramici pretender might launch an invasion and attempt to seize Thessaloniki in the future, Andronikos married Yolande of Montferrat in 1284, bringing her dynastic claims to Thessaloniki into his own family line. For the next 192 years, Michael's descendants ruled the Byzantine Empire until the death of Constantine XI Palaiologos and the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks on May 29, 1453, becoming the longest-lived dynasty in Byzantine history. Theodora Palaiologina Angelina Kantakouzene, Great Martyr, the Emperor Blessed Constantine XI Paleologos, Georgios Frantzes, Ioannes A. Melisseides, Rita Zavolea Melisseidou, " Ealo I Polis, To Chronico tes halose tes Konstantinoupoles " ( Constantinople has Fallen. [56], The marriage of Zoe/Sophia (Thomas's second daughter) to Ivan III of Moscow served to strengthen Moscow's claim to be the "Third Rome", the ideological and spiritual successor to the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine civil wars, and the collapse of Stefan Dušan's Serbian Empire following his death in 1355, had allowed the Ottoman Turks to expand almost unopposed through the Balkans and in the second half of the 14th century, the empire passed almost without a fight under Ottoman sovereignty, forced to pay tribute and offer military aid if needed. [131] In 1798, the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Anthemus, wrote that the Ottoman Empire had been imposed by God himself as the supreme empire on Earth due to the heretical dealings of the Palaiologan emperors with Christians in the West.[132]. [108] Theodore had a well-documented career as a stratiote. Over the course of the 12th century, the Palaiologoi were mostly part of the military aristocracy, not recorded as occupying any administrative political offices, and they frequently intermarried with the then ruling Komnenos family, increasing their prestige. His brothers included the Byzantine emperors John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos , as well as Theodore II Palaiologos and Demetrios Palaiologos, despots in Morea, and Andronikos Palaiologos, despot in Thessalonica. John IV, the last representative of the imperial Laskaris dynasty, was pushed aside in order to consolidate the Palaiologos family on the throne. The fourth son of Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus (reigned 1391-1425), Constantine was born on Feb. 8, 1405. Thomas retained hope that the Papacy might yet call for a crusade to restore the Byzantine Empire whereas Demetrios, probably the more realistic of the two, had more or less given up hope of Christian aid from the West and believed it to be best to placate the Turks. He was trained as a soldier and in 1441 conquered the Morea Peninsula of Greece. The emperor's excommunication was not lifted until nine years into his reign, upon the appointment of Patriarch Joseph I. In 1394, Manuel II ceased to pay tribute to the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I, who responded by besieging Constantinople. [86] These modern Palaiologoi cannot be confidently proven to descend from the imperial dynasty, or the medieval family which produced it. Thomas Palaiologos was the youngest surviving son of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and his wife Helena Dragaš. [92] It would be difficult to explain why Allatius, a respected scholar, would simply make up a member of an ancient dynasty. [121][122] This group stood in close contact with two powerful viziers, Mesih Pasha and Hass Murad Pasha, both of whom were reportedly nephews to Constantine XI Palaiologos and had been forced to covert to Islam after Constantinople's fall,[123] as well as with other converted scions of Byzantine and Balkan aristocratic families like Mahmud Pasha Angelović, forming what the Ottomanist Halil İnalcık termed a "Greek faction" at the court of Mehmed II. [11] Once news of the act, the blinding of not only the legitimate emperor, but an underage boy, got out, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Arsenios Autoreianos, excommunicated Michael. [126] The union was passionately opposed by the Byzantine people and of Byzantine rulers not actually under Michael VIII's control, such as John II Megas Komnenos, Emperor of Trebizond, and Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas, the ruler of Epirus. [74] The name "Montferrato-Paleologo" is recorded on the Greek island of Cephalonia until the 17th century, though it is uncertain how they were connected to the Italian family. Some, such as Theophilos Palaiologos, lost their lives in the battle, whereas others were taken prisoner and executed. To the Byzantine citizens themselves, the Union of the Churches, which to John VIII served as an assurance of a great western crusade against the Ottomans, was a death warrant for their empire. Lisez des commentaires honnêtes et non biaisés sur les produits de la part nos utilisateurs. [129] As Ottoman rule continued, many Greeks dreamed of a day when a new emperor would once more rule a sizeable Greek domain. Constantine was born in Constantinople as the eighth of ten children to Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš, the daughter of the Serbian magnate Constantine Dragaš. 1 Constantine XI Palaiologos 1.1 Background 2 Titles 2.1 Emperor of the Byzantines 2.2 Despot of the Morea 3 Downfall 3.1 Death Constantine XI Palaiaologos is revered as one of the greatest Roman emperors in history. On 1 January 1259, Michael was proclaimed as co-emperor at Nymphaion, probably without John IV being present. Constantine I (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; 2 August [ O.S. "old word") was a Greek translation of vetus verbum, a dubious etymology of Viterbo. Andreas attempted to sell his claims to various Byzantine titles to earn money, but since Manuel did not have any claims to sell (as he was the second son), he instead travelled around Europe hoping to enter into the service of some noble. During the … By the time of his death in 1508, he served the Papal States, having risen through the ranks to become the commander of the Papal Guard. [133], Beyond Constantine's martyrdom, the Palaiologos dynasty had a lasting impact on the Greeks throughout the centuries of Ottoman rule, having been the last family to govern independent Greek lands. Sophia and Ivan had several children and numerous descendants. Their genealogy mainly derives from the tombstone of Theodore Paleologus (d. 1636), which lists Theodore's male-line ancestors five generations back, reaching Thomas. A 1455 document in which Cardinal Isidoro Ruteno grants indulgences to those who donate to a church in San Mauro Cilento mentions a "Ruggerio" as the son of "Tommaso Paleologo". [31] Though Pius II was eager to go through with the idea, and Thomas rode around Italy in the hopes of drumming up support for the venture,[32] no crusade materialized this time either. In 1478, Theodore travelled to Venice with his father, Paul, and became a stratiote. To avoid infighting, their mother Helena Dragaš decided that Constantine was to be the next emperor. Constantine, with some 8… Allatius was the keeper of the Vatican Library and would have had access to its vast collection of books and records and might have deduced his findings from there. The situation was so dire that Manuel left Constantinople to travel around Western Europe asking for further aid against the Ottomans, visiting Italy, France and England. [100][101], Ferdinand died in 1670 and was survived only by his son, Theodore. [1], The Palaiologoi ruled Byzantium at its weakest point in history, and the empire underwent significant economical and political decline. [4] The earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, was Nikephoros Palaiologos, commander (possibly doux) of the Theme of Mesopotamia in the second half of the 11th century, in the reign of Emperor Michael VII Doukas. [60], Michael VIII succeeded in achieving a union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274, legitimizing him and his successors as rulers of Constantinople in the eyes of the West. Manuel's son, John VIII Palaiologos, co-emperor since before 1416, ignored the fragile peace with the Ottomans and supported Mustafa Çelebi, a pretender to the Ottoman throne, in a rebellion against Mehmed I's successor Murad II. Some reports said that it was due to poisoning after he'd attended a banquet in one of his subject's palaces outside Constantinople. [89] With the sole exception of Thomas's purported son John, the existence of the rest of Theodore's immediate ancestors can be verified through records at Pesaro. [79] Many of the non-imperial Byzantine Palaiologoi were part of the nobility and served as generals or powerful landowners. [76][77][78], The probable extinction of the senior branch of the imperial Palaiologos family at some point in the 16th century did little to stop individuals in various parts of Europe from claiming descent from the old imperial dynasty. Many Western rulers were conscious of their failure to prevent Byzantium's fall and welcomed these men at their courts. [114], Supposedly, Rogerio's descendants would then have remained in Casalsottano until 1571, when Giovanni Paleologo was given the fief of Perito and Ostigliano in Salerno. While the genealogies of many supposedly surviving branches of the imperial dynasty can easily be dismissed as fantasy, others, such as the genealogy of a lineage from Pesaro which survived until at least the late 17th century, are more plausible. [7] Though Michael continued to be mistrusted even after this, he married John III's grandniece Theodora Vatatzaina and was appointed as the megas konostaulos of the Latin mercenaries employed by the empire. For 57 years, Constantinople had been under Catholic rule through the Latin Empire and now the easterners had once more asserted their right not only to the position of Roman emperor but also to a church independent of the one centered in Rome. In 1284, Michael's son and successor Andronikos II Palaiologos visited the blinded and then 33-year-old John IV during a journey in Anatolia, hoping to demonstrate his disapproval with his father's actions. [75] A modern lineage, called the Paleologo-Oriundi, descends from Flaminio, an illegitimate son of John George. John III's son and successor, Theodore II Laskaris, recalled Michael in 1258 and after they had exchanged guarantees of safety and oaths of loyalty, Michael returned to service within the empire. [53] The Tocco family went extinct in 1884, with the title of Prince of Achaea (among others) being inherited by Carlo Capece Galeota, their closest relative. John II also pointed out that since Andronikos II had disinherited Andronikos III, John II was thus the rightful emperor as the only true heir to Andronikos II. Constantine XI Palaeologus, Palaeologus also spelled Palaiologos, (born February 9, 1404, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]—died May 29, 1453, Constantinople), the last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), killed in the final defense of Constantinople against the Ottoman Turks. By the beginning of the 15th century, the emperors had lost any real power, with the empire effectively having become a client state to the new Ottoman Empire. [37] Whether he had any children is uncertain. [1] As per this version, the family name Palaiologos (Palaios logos, lit. [109] He died in 1532,[79] being buried in the Orthodox church of San Giorgio dei Greci. A cadet branch in Italy, the Palaeologus-Montferrat, ruled the March of Montferrat until 1536 and died out in 1566. Related Descriptions Virtual International Authority File WorldCat Identities LC Name Authority File Wikidata. There, they faced a dilemma. Andreas Palaiologos died at a much younger age compared to his father, Constantine XI. [17] John VIII, aided by Constantine, successfully repulsed this attack and Demetrios was briefly imprisoned as punishment. [103] Theodore had a son, who probably predeceased him,[104] and was survived only by a posthumous daughter, Godscall Paleologue, born in January 1694. The weakening of Byzantium as a result of the civil war allowed Stefan Dušan of Serbia to invade Macedonia, Thessaly and Epirus in 1346–1348, creating the Serbian Empire. At the Council of Florence in 1439, Emperor John VIII reaffirmed the Union in the light of imminent Turkish attacks on what little remained of his empire. There is no evidence that the final emperor, Constantine XI, ever repudiated the union achieved at Florence in 1439. Allatius gives the sons of Thomas as "Andrea, Manuele and Ioanne". In 1259, Michael VIII Palaiologos became co-emperor to the young John IV Laskaris through a coup and in 1261, following the recapture of Constantinople from the Latin Empire, John IV was deposed and blinded. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople and Byzantium. Noté /5. Though Constantine XI died in communion with Rome (and thus as a "heretic"), his death in battle against the Ottomans, defending Constantinople, made the Greeks and the Orthodox church remember him as a hero, redeeming popular opinion of the dynasty as a whole. [72] An expedition to "recover" these territories was never organized. It had long been under the Frankish principality of 'Achaia' Constantine was crowned Emperor January 6, 1449 AD succeeding his brother. The role of the Palaiologoi as the final Christian dynasty to rule over Greek lands also accorded them a more positive remembrance among Greeks during the period of Ottoman rule. [69] John II even petitioned the Papacy to recognize his claims to Thessaloniki and to the empire, and to help him conquer them. [109], Theodore had married Maria, a daughter of a man by the name Demetrios Kantakouzenos. In the years that followed it was said that he was not dead but sleeping - the 'immortal emperor' turned to marble, who would one day be … Demetrios surrendered to the Ottomans without a fight and Thomas escaped into exile. Retrouvez The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. [90] The earliest record of John's existence other than Theodore's tombstone are the writings of the Greek scholar Leo Allatius, who wrote in 1648, too late for his works to be considered independent evidence. Demetrios drew support for his opposition to the union between the Orthodox and Catholic churches. [125] Michael VIII was taunted with the words "you have become a Frank", which remains a term in Greek to taunt converts to Catholicism to this day. άς/The Marble-Petrified King (music/video) on, Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (1204–1453), Eastern Orthodox Christians from the Byzantine Empire, Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Commons category without a link on Wikidata, WorldHeritage articles with VIAF identifiers, 21. She predeceased her father, dying in 1469. [8] Theodore II died in that same year and was succeeded by his eight-year-old son John IV Laskaris. As the Ottoman Empire grew to encompass more and more Byzantine territory, emperors such as John V and Manuel II labored intensely to retore the union, much to the dismay of their subjects. Andronikos died in 1385 and his son, John VII Palaiologos briefly managed to usurp the throne in 1390. [24], In the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, one of the most pressing threats to the new Ottoman regime was the possibility that one of Constantine XI's relatives would secure support and return to reclaim the empire. [107], The Venetian Palaiologoi were not related to the imperial family, but they might have been distant cousins. [6] In his youth, Michael had served as the governor of the towns of Melnik and Serres in Thrace, and though he and his family were distinguished among the aristocracy, he was frequently mistrusted by the ruling Laskaris dynasty. [112], A man by the name Andrea Paleologo Graitzas, attested in Venice in 1460, supposedly has living descendants, with numerous people with the last name Palaiologos (or variations thereof) living in Athens today claiming to descend from him. This second origin story is similar to family traditions of other Byzantine noble families, such as the Doukas or Phokas clans, who also used stories of ancient Roman descent to bolster their prestige and somewhat legitimize their claims to the throne of the Byzantine Empire, the Roman Empire's medieval continuation. According to several later oral traditions, the family had originated in Italy, supposedly in the city of Viterbo. [21] The ill-advised threat gave Mehmed a casus belli and late in 1451, preparations were already underway for a new Ottoman siege of Constantinople. Due to his knowledge of the Turkish language, Theodore also accompanied Venetian ambassadors in diplomatic missions to the Ottoman Empire, visiting Constantinople several times. [2] Another version of the Palaiologos origin story maintained that they had ancient Roman origin and that they were descended from Romans who had travelled to Constantinople alongside Constantine the Great when the city was founded and designated as the Roman Empire's new capital in 330. In the decades after 1453, Ottoman tax registers show a consortium of noble Greeks co-operating to bid for the lucrative tax farming district including Constantinople and the ports of western Anatolia. [24] Under their rule, the Morea was transformed into somewhat of a Byzantine government-in-exile, as Byzantine refugees from Constantinople and elsewhere fled to their courts, some even wishing to proclaim Demetrios, the elder brother, as Constantine's successor and the new Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans. [120] The presence of double-headed eagle symbols in the Spirito Santo church has been used as an argument in the past, but this symbol was not unique to the Palaiologoi, being used as a symbol by other families as well (both Byzantine and Western). Nevertheless, Constantine's actions during the Fall of Constantinople and his death fighting the Turks redeemed the popular view of the Palaiologan dynasty. The letter supposedly requested that if that was the case, the head of the family should be provided with the means of returning to Greece, with the trip paid for by the Greek government. A gallant prince, he completed the conquest of the Peloponnesus from the Latins and heroically commanded the futile defense of Constantinople against the Turks. In 1453, when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, he was last seen fighting at the city walls, but the actual circumstances of his death have remained surrounded in myth. 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