In some cases, there appeared to have been a mix up in the units between kg and several reports of purchases of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 or 4 kg of fertilizer, probably referred to the number of 50 kg bags instead. We used the town name to assign geographic coordinates to each location. Except for Mozambique, these countries are landlocked. It is important to know the price at the farmgate which includes the costs of the fertilizer per se plus the cost of reaching the market to get the product. Number of observations (n) and estimated slope coefficient. Random Forest models tend to predict very well within the range of the observed values, but the predictions may show sudden breaks, and can be poor in extrapolating. For the CAN models by country, the average slope was 0.96 (range: 0.89–1.01 USD kg-1) (S4 Table and S3 Fig). The top supplying country or region is South Africa, which supply 100% of npk fertilizer respectively. Unitedlys® NPK 19 19 19 Fertilizer for Plants and Gardening Complete Plant Food, Growth Boost and Flowering | 400 Grams | 10. ref-tags-container-link ref-tags-container-link ref-tags-container-link ref-tags-container-link ref-tags-container-link ref-tags-container-link ref-tags-container-link ref-tags-container-link 1-12 of over 10,000 results for Fertilizer & Soil. 3. [24, 28, 29]). Affected by international financial crisis, fertilizer price was falling. While we were able to remove outliers, we had no way of correcting error for prices that were within a reasonable range of values. Any fertilizer distributed primarily for specified use in connection with grass, flowers, vegetables, golf courses and home use purposes. DAP [(NH4)2HPO4] is the world’s most widely used phosphorous fertilizer and is also a source of N. It contains 18% N and 20% P. To allow for comparison of prices between years and countries, we converted prices from national currency to inflation-adjusted purchasing power parity United States dollars (USD) by dividing them by the consumer price index (CPI) times the purchasing power parity (PPP) dollar value for each year according to the World Bank [3]. Get the liquid fertilizers you need from the leading fertilizer supplier in South Africa. Slope (USD kg-1) of the regression models between subsidized and non-subsidized prices. Our data covered much of the SSA cropland area, but we did not have data for a few large countries including South Africa, Sudan, and Zimbabwe. Seeds For Africa Talborne Organics - Vita Grow 2:3:2 16 General Organic Fertilizer - 25KG. Yearly rate of inflation** 8.5%. The Jigawa State Governor, Muhammed Badaru, said on Wednesday the Federal Government has reduced the price of NPK fertilizer from N5,500 to N5,000 per 50kg bag. We retrieved 12659 observations of farmer-reported urea prices from LSMS and retained 10528 observations. South Africa is a net importer of fertilizers. Trends in planted areas of the major field crops 25 7. View Range. The amount of sub-national price variation, and the performance of our interpolation models, differs strongly across countries in our sample. The South African fertilizer industry manufactures a broad range of fertilizer products as compounds or mixtures which contain two or more of the Primary Macro plant nutrients Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) which are broadly referred to as NPK products. Although the Africa fertilizer model performed slightly better than the LSMS model (ER: 0.26 vs 0.21); LSMS had much more data, and a better geographic coverage. Crop yields in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are generally very low [1, 2]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227764.g009. To address this gap, we compiled local fertilizer price data from eighteen countries in SSA. In Mozambique prices were lowest near the border with Zambia. Thank you. We compared the RMSE of the interpolation (EI) with that of a Null-model (E0), in which we assumed no spatial price variation, by computing relative RMSE as ER = 1-(EI / E0). In this case, transportation cost (USD kg-1 of purchased fertilizer) by transportation type varied between 0.04 to 0.08 USD kg-1 (Table 4). The consistency of the Africa Fertilizer data was generally much better. We build separate models for the Africa Fertilizer and LSMS data. In East Africa, the countries with the highest prices were Burundi and Uganda while Kenya had the lowest average price in East Africa. EI: Root mean square error (USD kg-1). The CV was relatively low in Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda (Table 2). Writing – review & editing. All the prices are non-subsidized. During the same period, the price of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers declined substantially due to very low demand globally. Compounds are chemically processed to have all the specified units in one granule, while blends are a physical mixture of different minerals and nutrients in customized proportions. It is taken into consideration of four types fertilizers in South Africa, including LAN, MAP, urea and MOP. Farmers in remote rural settings generally face less favorable input-output price ratios than farmers in less remote settings [58, 64]. However, many observations associated with these amounts cannot be fixed by multiplying with 50, because even after changing the units to number of bags, the prices remained too high. On average the transportation cost was 4.35% of the total paid for the fertilizer price; for truck/bus/minibus this relationship was 1.93%, for wheelbarrow 2.13%, for own bicycle/animal cart/push cart 3.15%, for hired bicycle 3.68%, and for motorcycle 4.19%. Seeds For Africa Organic Summer Survival Vegetable & Herb Starter Kit With Seeds Fertilizer And So Much More. While the predictions based on the LSMS showed spatial variation; the model predictions were poor, perhaps due to low data quality. Figure 2: Fertilizer consumption in South Africa, 2006 - 2016 Source: FERTASA For instance, in Rwanda the price for subsidized prices was the same in all locations and the number of observations was higher than for non-subsidized urea. Regional models are attractive as they could be used to predict price variation in countries for which we have limited local market price data, but we did not investigate that here. For Nigeria and Malawi, LSMS reported type of transportation and transportation costs farmers paid in order to obtain the fertilizer from the market. At TRIOMF, we source, import, manufacture, blend and distribute premium quality fertilizer and other agricultural products. For Nigeria and Tanzania, the questions about the purchased fertilizer (i.e. The poor performance was associated with very limited variation in predicted prices for the Africa Fertilizer model, and for the LSMS model as well in most parts of the country. For example, in Nigeria, Ghana, and Benin, prices went down when moving away from the coast. Even though prices could be expected to be higher per unit weight for low quantities purchased, they remained excessive. We thank Drs. One way to do that may be to integrate input (and output) price predictions into spatial crop models, and then evaluate the degree to which modeled fertilizer use profitability predicts observed fertilizer use rates across different locations. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Predicted relative urea price (local price divided by the observed median national price) for areas with crop land in (a) Tanzania using Africa Fertilizer data; (b) Tanzania using LSMS data; (c) Tanzania using Africa Fertilizer data and a sub-sample of LSMS data with the sample size equal to Africa Fertilizer. Fertilizer prices in South African are changed with international fertilizer market. And whether npk fertilizer and prices is quick, controlled, or slow. The predictions from a single regional model are similar to that of the combined country-based models, but with reduced spatial variation within countries (Figs 9 and 10). On average, 58% of the fertilizer was purchased within the village (70% in Ethiopia, 51% in Nigeria, and 52% in Tanzania); 22% near the village (18% in Ethiopia, 29% in Nigeria, and 18% in Tanzania); 15% within or near town (10% in Ethiopia, 18% in Nigeria, and 18% in Tanzania). Funding acquisition, No, Is the Subject Area "Urea" applicable to this article? We provide clients across the country (Gauteng, North West, Free State, Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Northern Cape, Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga) with specially developed fertilizer products that meet their needs. Yes The Fertilizer Society of South Africa was established in 1959. The black line represents y = x. Some authors reported little effect of changes in the cost of shipping fertilizer from the distributor to local retailer [21,58]. Random Forest has the benefit of flexibility for fitting potentially irregular surfaces resulting from complex interactions [39]. We compiled fertilizer price data for eighteen countries in West and East Africa from two data sources: (1) Africa Fertilizer [32] and (2) the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (henceforth LSMS) [33]. For most other countries, we had between 60 and 137 observations. TPS is a flexible local regression method that lends itself to interpolating noisy data with high levels of uncertainty [41]. We propose that spatial price estimation methods such as the ones we employ here may serve for better approximating heterogeneous economic market landscapes, until such time as truly comprehensive local market price information systems become available. In Senegal, prices are much higher south of The Gambia, which is a region of Senegal that is relatively difficult to reach from the other part of the country (Figs 5 and 6). The three countries with the most expensive urea are landlocked (Burundi: 1.51, Uganda: 1.49 and Burkina Faso: 1.49 USD kg-1) (Table 2). Yes For example, to evaluate the economic returns to fertilizer in a particular location, we need to understand crop responses to fertilizer under local conditions, as well as the effective price of fertilizer, and the price that a farmer could get for the crop products. We fitted a linear regression model with no intercept between transportation cost and travel time (in hours) to market. A few studies have utilized price variation obtained from averaging price survey data over arbitrary sub-national boundaries, such as districts or regions (e.g. 3. Countries where the model performed very well, such as Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda had a relatively high range in observed prices. During the same period, the price of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers declined substantially due to very low demand globally. There was no Africa Fertilizer data in the south where the predictions were most dissimilar. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227764.t001. Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria had the lowest national mean prices (0.80, 0.97, 0.99 USD kg-1). type, source, and amount used) were at the plot level, while the reported price is for the total quantity of purchased fertilizer. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227764.g003. 1.02. LATEST NEWS. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click In contrast, they were 70% in Ghana and Mali, 71% in Benin, and 84% in Rwanda. Talborne Vita Grow 2:3:2 (16) Best suited for : All new plantings General garden feed Root + bulb vegetable Advantages : Promotes sturdy + healthy growth Complete feed NPK + trace nutrients No burn Sustained release over 4 months Best time to apply : New plantings This, while producing smooth surfaces, TPS will not necessarily return the observed value for a sampled point. Fertilisers are essential for ensuring plants receive the nutrition they need to flourish and grow. Name * First. For the West Africa regional model, the most important variables were longitude (28%), precipitation (21%), latitude, population density and distance to port (20% increase of MSE). In addition, there were other cases where low amounts of fertilizer were associated with low prices (less than 0.1 USD kg-1). Description of NPK The NPK markings on the fertilizer describe the percentages of each of these nutrients as a ratio proportional to each other. For example, a purchase of 2 kg of urea for 79 USD is unlikely, whereas dividing that price by 100 kg (for two bags of 50 kg) yields a plausible price of 0.79 USD kg-1. SOUTH AFRICAN FERTILISER CONSUMPTION The utilisation of fertilisers in South Africa between 2007 and 2016 is depicted in Figure 2 below. The lowest median DAP prices were in East African countries (Malawi and Kenya) and the highest median prices were in landlocked West African countries (Burkina Faso and Mali). Yes A weakness of the CPI is that it may not be a very accurate measure of price changes in more rural areas. In several countries, for example, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Uganda, and Zambia, prices were lower closer to the capital and or other main markets. Many studies of technology profitability have assumed spatially-constant input and output prices (e.g., [26, 27]), which is at odds with rural economic reality. Low crop yields in Sub-Saharan Africa are associated with low fertilizer use. The lowest median prices were reported in Kenya and Tanzania and the highest were reported in Malawi and Mozambique (Fig 2 and S1 Table). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Yes Fertilizer consumption is the key to Africa's food security. We computed Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) as test statistics. Npk Fertilizer Price - Select 2021 high quality Npk Fertilizer Price products in best price from certified Chinese Npk Water Soluble Fertilizer manufacturers, Urea Fertilizer Npk suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com e0227764. We have embarked on a programme to upgrade blending plants by incorporating the latest technology to assure clients of a product that meets the demands of Agriculture today. The spatial price predictions–“price maps”–that are generated by our approach can be used to improve empirical research on technology use (by more accurately approximating local input and output prices faced by farmers), as well as incorporated into targeting and planning frameworks for agricultural investments (e.g. Africa Fertilizer reported non-subsidized and subsidized prices for several countries. In most countries our spatial models fit the data reasonably well and outperformed the Null model of no spatial variation. 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